Exchange a glance with someone, then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer, and you have made a different statement. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person’s gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you
permitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You very likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up（打量）and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interaction, you need to emit a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contact, what sociologist Erving Goffman (1963) calls “a dimming of the lights.” You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger’s eyes. Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an elevator, you will make the other person exceedingly uncomfortable, and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself.
If you hold eye contact for more than 3 seconds, what are you telling another person? Much depends on the person and the situation. For instance, a man and a woman communicate interest in this manner. They typically gaze at each other for about 3 seconds at a time, then drop their eyes down for 3 seconds, before letting their eyes meet again. But if one man gives another man a 3-second-plus stare, he signals, “I know you”, “I am interested in you,” or “You look peculiar and I am curious about you.”
This type of stare often produces hostile feelings.
（单选题）It can be inferred form the first paragraph that _______.
A.every glance has its significance
B.staring at a person is an expression of interest
C.a gaze longer than 3 seconds is unacceptable
D.a glance conveys more meaning than words
（单选题）If you want to be left alone on an elevator, the best thing to do is __________.
A.to look into another passenger’s eyes
B.to avoid eye contact with other passengers
C.to signal you are not a threat to anyone
D.to keep a distance from other passengers
（单选题）By “a dimming of the lights” (Para.1, Line 9) Erving Goffman means “_______”.
A. closing one’s eyes
B.turning off the lights
C.ceasing to glance at others
D.reducing gaze-time to the minimum
（单选题）If one is looked at by a stranger for too long, he tends to feel ___________.
（单选题）The passage mainly discusses __________.
A.the limitations of eye contact
B.the exchange of ideas through eye contact
C.proper behavior in situations
D.the role of eye contact in interpersonal communication
综合题： Driving a car at high speed along a highway seems to be fun. You need only to follow the bright
traffic(交通) signs beside the highways and it will take you to where you wish.
But to a London taxi driver, driving is not an easy job. A taxi driver has to have not only good driving skills but also a good knowledge of the city of a London, from the smallest lane(小巷) to the most popular bar(酒吧) around. He has to be at the service of all kinds of passengers at all times.
A certain London taxi driver told of his job as follows.
During the night it is quite usual for him to stop two or three times for some refreshments (点心). He said. “I never drink when I’m working ---- I would lose my licence(执照).”
He normally goes home between 2 and 3 O’clock in the night, There are times he has to stay longer and try to make more runs. He said, “That’s the worst thing about working for yourself. If you don’t make the money , no one is going to give it to you.”
London taxi drivers not only ‘take’ but also ‘give’ , Every summer hundreds of children from London will go for a day at the sea--- by taxi! Their rides are paid by the taxi drivers, and these fares(车费) all go to the ‘London Taxi Fund for Underprivileged Children.’ At the sea. they are met by the mayor, and a lunch party is also held in honour of the taxi drivers and the children. After a happy day running around the sea beaches and visiting the market, the children go home again-- by taxi, and free of charge, of course!
（单选题）To be a London driver is not easy because ______.
A.he has to follow the bright traffic signs
B. he has to have good driving skills and know all the places in the city
C.he has to serve all kinds of passengers at all times
D.both B. and C
（单选题）The London taxi drivers _______.
A.work hard because on one would give them money for doing nothing
B.never stop driving in the city
C.only work between 2 and 3 o’clock in the night
D.are very rich
（单选题）The author of the passage says that _______.
A.the taxi driver works longer than is necessary
B.the more runs the taxi driver makes, the more he gets
C.the taxi driver doesn’t like to work for others
D.the taxi drivers in the city not only take money but also give money
（单选题）London taxi driver _______.
A.take money because they have to pay for the children’s ride
B.go to the sea for a day in the summer
C.pay the fares for the poor children to the sea for a day once every year
D.give the poor children a free ride for a day at the sea once every year
（单选题）The underlined words Underprivileged Children mean children _______.
A.of low income families
B.who like to travel in taxi
C.who wish to go to sea but have no money
综合题： Overhead bridges are found in many parts of Beijing, especially in places where traffic is very heavy and crossing the road is dangerous.
The purpose of these bridges is to enable pedestrians (行人) to cross roads safely. Overhead bridges are used to very much the same way as zebra crossings. They are more efficient (效率高的) although less
convenient because people have to climb up a long flight of steps. This is inconvenient especially to older people. When pedestrains use an overhead bridge, they do not hold up traffic. However, when they cross a busy road using a zebra crossing, traffic is held up. This is why the government has built many overhead bridges to help pedestrians and to keep traffic moving at the same time.
The government of Beijing has spent a large amount of money on building these bridges. For their own safety, pedestrians should be encouraged to use them instead of risking (冒…危险) their lives by dashing across the road. Old people , however , may find it a little difficult climbing up and down the steps, but it is still much safer than walking across the road with all the danger of moving traffic.
Overhead bridges serve a very useful purpose. Pedestrians, both old and young, should make it a habit to use them. This will prevent unnecessary accidents and loss of life.
（单选题）What is the advantage of overhead bridges mentioned in this passage?
A.Taller trucks can pass under them.
B.Pedestrians can climb up and have a view of the city.
C.They are safer for pedestrians and can keep traffic moving at the same time.
D.They are easier and more convenient for the pedestrians.
（单选题）Why were overhead bridges built in Beijing?
A.Because they prevent traffic from being held up.
B.Because they provide an easy way for the drivers to cross the road.
C.Because they save money for the government.
D. Because they save time for the pedestrians.
（单选题）Which of the following statements is true according to the passage?
A.Overhead bridges are found in every part of Beijing.
B.Overhead bridges are only found in the centre of Beijing.
C.Overhead bridges are found in many parts of big cities in China.
D.Overhead bridges are found in places where traffic is heavy.
（单选题）The underlined words a zebra crossing probably mean________.
A.a safe place across a road for pedestrians to walk across the road
B.a wild animal from Africa that looks like a horse with broad dark brown and white stripes on its body
C.a safe place across a road for zebras to walk across the road
D.a safe place across a road for children to play a game
（单选题）What is the writer’s attitude towards overhead bridges?
A.It is inconvenient to older people to walk across the road.
B.It is much safer for pedestrians though climbing up and down the steps may be a little difficult,
C.An overhead bridge is more beautiful than a zebra crossing.
D.To build overhead bridges is the business of the government.
综合题： Henry Ford, the famous U.S. inventor and car manufacturer, once said, ‘The business of America is business.” By this he meant that the U.S. way of life is based on the values of the business world.
Few would argue with Ford’s statement. A brief glimpse at a daily newspaper vividly shows how much people in the United States think about business. For example, nearly every newspaper has a business section, in which the deals and projects, finances and management, stock prices and labor problems of corporations are reported daily. In addition, business news can appear in every other section. Most national news has an important financial aspect to it. Welfare, foreign aid, the federal budget, and the policies of the Federal Reserve Bank are all heavily affected by business. Moreover, business news appears in some of the unlikeliest places. The world of arts and entertainment is often referred to as “the entertainment industry” or “show business.”
The positive side of Henry Ford’s statement can be seen in the prosperity that business has brought to U.S. life. One of the most important reasons so many people from all over the world come to live in the United States is the dream of a better job. Jobs are produced in abundance (大量地) because the U.S. economic system is driven by competition. People believe that this system creates more wealth, more jobs, and a materially better way of life.
The negative side of Henry Ford’s statement, however, can be seen when the word business is taken to mean big business. And the term big business—referring to the biggest companies, is seen in opposition to labor. Throughout U.S. history working people have had to fight hard for higher wages, better working conditions, and the right to form unions. Today, many of the old labor disputes are over, but there is still some employee anxiety. Downsizing—the laying off of thousands of workers to keep expenses low and profits high -- creates feelings of insecurity for many.
（单选题）The united States is a typical country ______.
A.which encourages free trade at homes and abroad
B.where people’s chief concern is how to make money
C.where all businesses are managed scientifically
D.which normally works according to the federal budget
单选题）The influence of business in the U.S. is evidenced by the fact that ______.
A.most newspapers are run by big businesses
B.even public organizations concentrate on working for profits
C.Americans of all professions know how to do business
D.even arts and entertainment are regarded as business
（单选题）According to the passage, immigrants choose to settle in the U.S., dreaming that ______.
A.they can start profitable businesses there
B.they can be more competitive in business
C.they will make a fortune overnight there
D.they will find better chances of employment
（单选题）Henry Ford’s statements can be taken negatively because ______.
A.working people are discouraged to fight for their rights
B.there are many industries controlled by a few big capitalists
C.there is a conflicting relationship between big corporations and labor
D.public services are not run by the federal government
（单选题）A company’s efforts to keep expenses low and profits high may result in ______.
A. reduction in the number of employees
B.improvement of working conditions
C.fewer disputes between labor and management
D.a rise in workers’ wages
综合题： Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services, and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is probably word-of-mouth advertising, which occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Yet almost no providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid advertising instead. Indeed, many organizations also use institutional or prestige advertising, which is designed to build up their reputation rather than to sell particular products.
Although large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, write their own advertisements, and buy media space themselves, they tend to use the services of large advertising agencies. These are likely to have more resources, and more knowledge about all aspects of advertising and advertising
media than a single company. The most talented advertising people generally prefer to work for agencies rather than individual companies as this gives them the chance to work on a variety of advertising accounts (contracts to advertise products or services). It is also easier for dissatisfied company to give its account to another agency than it would be to fire its own advertising staff.
The client company generally gives the advertising agency an agreed budget; a statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign, known as a brief; and an overall advertising strategy concerning the message to be communicated to the target customers. The agency creates advertisements, and develops a media plan specifying which media --- newspaper, magazines, radio, television, cinema, posters, mail, etc. --- will be used and in which proportions. Agencies often produce alternative ads or commercials that are pre-tested in newspapers, television stations, etc. in different parts of a country before a final choice is made prior to a national campaign.and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called
smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake’s vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward, the computer would force the building to shift in the opposite direction.
The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, they would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.
（单选题）In the sentence “Yet almost no providers of goods or services rely on this alone …” , what does “this” refer to?
（单选题）Large companies tend to use the services of large advertising agencies, because agencies______
A.have more knowledge about media
B.have more resources, and more space about advertising and advertising media
C.have more human resources, and more knowledge about advertising and advertising media
D.have more resources, and more knowledge about advertising and advertising media
（单选题）The most talented advertising people generally prefer to work for agencies because agencies ______
A.would not fire its own advertising staff
B.give them the chance to work on a lot of advertise products
C.provide them the chance to work on a lot of advertising clients
D.would like to keep its own advertising staff
（单选题）Which media is likely to be included in the media plan?
D.any one of the above
（单选题）Before a national campaign has been made, advertising agencies would ______
A.produce alternative ads or commercials that are pre-tested in various media in different places
B.give an agreed budget
C.give a statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign
D.produce an overall advertising strategy concerning the message
综合题： Most organizationshave a pyramidal structure, with one person or a group of people at the top,
and an increasing number of people below them at each successive level. There is a clear line or chain of command running down the pyramid. All the people in the organization know what decisions they are able to make, who their superior (or boss) is (to whom they report), and who their immediate subordinates are
(to whom they can give orders).
Some people in an organization have colleagues who help them: for example. There might be an assistant to the marketing manager. This is known as a staff position: its holder has no line authority, and is not integrated into the chain of command. It is unlike, for example, the assistant marketing manager, who is number two in the marketing department.
Yet the activities of most companies are too complex to be organized in a single hierarchy. Shortly before the First World War, the French industrialist Henry Fayol organized his coal-mining business according to the functions that it had to carry out. He is generally regarded as inventing functional organization. Today, most large manufacturing organizations have a functional structure, including (among others) production, finance, marketing, sales, and personnel or staff departments. This means, for example, that the production and marketing departments cannot take financial decisions without consulting the finance department.
Functional organization is efficient, but there are two standard criticisms. Firstly, people are usually more concerned with the success of their department than that of the company, so there are permanent battles between, for example, finance and marketing, or marketing and production. Secondly, separating functions is unlikely to encourage innovation. and wood, that bend without breaking. Later, people tried to lift a building off its foundation, and insert rubber and steel between the building and its foundation to reduce the impact of ground vibrations. The most recent designs give buildings brains as well as concrete and steel supports. Called smart buildings, the structures respond like living organisms to an earthquake’s vibrations. When the ground shakes and the building tips forward,the computer would force the building to shift in the opposite direction.
The new smart structures could be very expensive to build. However, they would save many lives and would be less likely to be damaged during earthquakes.
（单选题）The assistant to the marketing manager has the obligation to______
A.have line authority
B. help other colleagues
C.have the chain of command
D.be the number two in the marketing department
（单选题）Which statement below is correct?
A.The structure of all organizations is pyramidal.
B.An increasing number of people below the top management at every other successive level.
C.All the people in the organization know what their authorities to make decisions are.
D.The immediate subordinates can give orders.
（单选题）Functional organization _______
A. was imported by the French industrialist Henry Fayol.
B.allows financial department to take marketing department’s decisions.
C.is organized according to function that it has to carry out.
D.is less efficient than single hierarchy.
（单选题）According to the passage, functional organization has bad sides, since ____.
A. people are usually more concerned with the success of their own department
B.it can encourage innovation
C.marketing departments can make decision for financial department
D.marketing and financial departments are supposed to combine together
（单选题）According to the passage, single hierarchy ______
A. is not applied by most manufacturing companies
C.can deal with complex organizations.
D.is easier to use.